1. 1789: The United States Constitution went into effect as the first Federal Congress met in New York City, and the U.S. government began operations.

2. 1861: Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States. This inauguration took place during a tense period leading up to the Civil War.

3. 1933: Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated as the 32nd President of the United States, famously declaring, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself” during his inaugural address.

4. 1933: The U.S. Congress passed the Emergency Banking Act in an effort to stabilize the nation’s banking system during the Great Depression.

5. 1952: Ernest Hemingway’s novel “The Old Man and the Sea” was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.

6. 2001: The Criminal Court (ICC) was established with the adoption of the Rome Statute.