1. 1492: Christopher Columbus signed a contract with Spain to find a western route to the East Indies, which eventually led to his voyage to the Americas.

2. 1790: Benjamin Franklin, American inventor, scientist, and politician, died in Philadelphia at the age of 84.

3. 1861: The state of Virginia voted to secede from the United States during the American Civil War.

4. 1961: The Bay of Pigs Invasion began when a group of Cuban exiles, trained by the CIA, landed in Cuba in an attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro’s regime. The invasion ultimately failed.

5. 1964: Jerrie Mock became the first woman to fly solo around the world, completing her journey in a Cessna 180, “Spirit of Columbus.”

6. 1970: Apollo 13, the third crewed mission intended to land on the moon, safely returned to Earth after an oxygen tank explosion forced the mission to be aborted.

7. 1975: The Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, captured Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia, marking the beginning of the Khmer Rouge regime, which resulted in widespread genocide and suffering.

8. 1986: The United States launched Operation El Dorado Canyon, a series of air raids against Libya in response to the bombing of a Berlin discotheque frequented by U.S. soldiers.

9. 2014: The South Korean ferry MV Sewol sank off the coast of Jindo Island, resulting in the deaths of 304 passengers and crew members, mostly high school students.

10. 2019: A devastating fire broke out at the Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris, causing significant damage to the historic landmark and destroying its spire and roof.