1. 404 BC – The Peloponnesian War ended with the surrender of Athens to Sparta, marking a significant shift in ancient Greek civilization.

2. 1792 – Highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier became the first person to be executed by guillotine, marking a new era in methods of capital punishment in France.

3. 1859 – Groundbreaking ceremonies for the Suez Canal began, which would eventually provide a direct shipping route between Europe and Asia through Egypt.

4. 1915 – The Gallipoli Campaign began during World War I when Allied troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula in an effort to secure a sea route to Russia. This day is commemorated as ANZAC Day in Australia and New Zealand.

5. 1945 – Delegates from 50 countries met in San Francisco to begin the United Nations Conference on International Organization, leading to the creation of the United Nations Charter.

6. 1953 – Francis Crick and James Watson published a paper describing the double helix structure of DNA, a pivotal moment in the field of genetics and biology.

7. 1974 – The Carnation Revolution occurred in Portugal, a military coup that overthrew the Estado Novo regime and eventually led to democratic reforms and the decolonization of Portuguese colonies.

8. 1982 – Israel completed its withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula as part of the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty of 1979.

9. 1983 – Pioneer 10, launched in 1972, became the first human-made object to travel beyond the solar system, passing the orbit of Pluto.

10. 2005 – Bulgaria and Romania signed accession treaties to join the European Union, marking a significant expansion of the EU to include these Eastern European countries.