1. 1469 – **Birth of Niccolò Machiavelli**: Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer, often called the founder of modern political science.

2. 1494 – **Christopher Columbus Sights Jamaica**: On his second voyage to the New World, Christopher Columbus sighted Jamaica, an island he named Santiago.

3. 1802 – **Washington, D.C. is Incorporated**: The United States capital was officially incorporated as a city.

4. 1913 – **Raja Harishchandra Premieres**: The first full-length Indian feature film, “Raja Harishchandra”, was released, marking the beginning of Indian cinema.

5. 1937 – **Margaret Mitchell Wins Pulitzer Prize for “Gone with the Wind”**: The novel went on to become one of the best-selling novels of all time and was later adapted into a highly successful film.

6. 1947 – **New post-war Japanese constitution goes into effect**: This constitution provided for a parliamentary system of government and guaranteed many fundamental human rights.

7. 1951 – **The Festival of Britain Opens**: Designed to promote the British contribution to science, technology, industrial design, architecture and the arts, the festival also aimed to foster British national pride and optimism post-World War II.

8. 1973 – **The Sears Tower in Chicago is Topped Out**: At the time of its completion, it was the tallest building in the world.

9. 2000 – **The Sport of Geocaching Begins**: The first documented placement of a GPS-located cache took place. This has since become a popular outdoor recreational activity.

10. 2006 – **Zacarias Moussaoui is Sentenced to Life**: Convicted for his role in the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Moussaoui received a life sentence without parole.