1. 1536 – Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII of England, was beheaded for alleged adultery, treason, and incest.

2. 1568 – Queen Elizabeth I of England arrested Mary, Queen of Scots.

3. 1643 – The French Academy of Sciences was established by Cardinal Richelieu.

4. 1802 – The French Legion of Honor was created by Napoleon Bonaparte.

5. 1848 – Mexico ratified the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ceding California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of four other modern-day U.S. states to the United States.

6. 1921 – The U.S. Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act, establishing national immigration quotas.

7. 1962 – Marilyn Monroe sang “Happy Birthday” to President John F. Kennedy at Madison Square Garden.

8. 1971 – Mars 2, a Soviet space probe, was launched, becoming the first human-made object to reach the surface of Mars.

9. 1991 – Croatians voted to secede from Yugoslavia.

10. 2018 – A school shooting occurred at Santa Fe High School in Texas, resulting in ten deaths.