1. 585 BC – A solar eclipse occurred, which was predicted by the Greek philosopher and scientist Thales of Miletus, marking one of the earliest recorded instances of scientific prediction.

2. 1533 – The Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer declared the marriage of King Henry VIII of England to Anne Boleyn valid, which led to the creation of the Church of England.

3. 1830 – U.S. President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, leading to the forced relocation of thousands of Native Americans, known as the Trail of Tears.

4. 1934 – The Dionne quintuplets, the first quintuplets known to survive infancy, were born near Callander, Ontario, Canada.

5. 1940 – During World War II, the Belgian army surrendered to Nazi Germany.

6. 1952 – The women of Greece were granted the right to vote.

7. 1961 – Amnesty International was founded in London by lawyer Peter Benenson.

8. 1972 – The Watergate scandal began with the break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C.

9. 1998 – Nuclear testing: Pakistan conducted five underground nuclear tests in response to Indian tests earlier in the month, sparking a regional arms race.

10. 2010 – The Gaza flotilla raid occurred when Israeli commandos boarded ships attempting to break the Gaza blockade, leading to a confrontation that resulted in the deaths of nine activists.